The course introduces recent classification schemes with the goal to produce and update 2D topographic databases. The inclusion of the spatial descriptors such as geometry and shape are important to characterize topographic objects in orthoimages. This course will present some of the challenges in mapping from high- resolution orthoimages and highlights the necessity of characterizing the orthoimages in the spatial domain. The solution to the above challenges will be provided by the efficient tool called morphological attribute profiles. They are multi-scale attributes and are constructed by a hierarchical representation of the images, thus enabling object-based image analysis. These characterizations are classified using well-established machine learning methods and different data sources (either raw or derived features). Different approaches to assess the thematic and geometric accuracy of map data will be discussed, and lastly the cartographic enhancement of the classification maps at different levels of quality will be presented. Solutions to the tasks are given by means of detailed course material including open source programs.